There is strong evidence to suggest that antiretroviral treatment
reduces HIV transmission by lowering viral load. Evidence from at
least one study show that current efforts to expand access to
treatment in sub-Saharan have probably resulted in a major reduction in HIV transmission. A three year study in Uganda of antiretroviral treatment coupled with intensive adherence support, behavioural counselling and partner testing led to an estimated 90% reduction in onward HIV transmission, CDC researchers calculated.
An ongoing study, is trying to determine if earlier treatment in
individuals with CD4 counts between 300 and 500 is more likely to
reduce HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples than treatment
initiated according to standard guidelines (the standard guideline
recommendation is that ARV treatment should start when the CD4 count is 200 or less). The study is recruiting in Brazil, India, Thailand, Malawi and Zimbabwe, and expected to report by 2013.
The world awaits the result of this study!