|Use of hormonal contraceptives and risk of HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort study......
Renee Heffron, Deborah Donnell, Prof Helen Rees, Connie Celum, Nelly Mugo, Edwin Were, Guy de Bruyn, Edith Nakku-Joloba, Kenneth Ngure, James Kiarie, Robert W Coombs, Jared M Baeten
Lancet Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;12(1):19-26. Epub 2011 Oct 3.
Hormonal contraceptives are used widely but their effects on HIV-1 risk are unclear. Heffron and colleagues aimed to assess the association between hormonal contraceptive use and risk of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from HIV-1-infected women to their male partners. In this prospective study, they followed up 3790 heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples participating in two longitudinal studies of HIV-1 incidence in seven African countries. Among injectable and oral hormonal contraceptive users and non-users, they compared rates of HIV-1 acquisition by women and HIV-1 transmission from women to men. The primary outcome measure was HIV-1 seroconversion. Cox proportional hazards regression and marginal structural modelling were used to assess the effect of contraceptive use on HIV-1 risk. Among 1314 couples in which the HIV-1-seronegative partner was female (median follow-up 18·0 [IQR 12·6–24·2] months), rates of HIV-1 acquisition were 6·61 per 100 person-years in women who used hormonal contraception and 3·78 per 100 person-years in those who did not (adjusted hazard ratio 1·98, 95% CI 1·06–3·68, p=0·03). Among 2476 couples in which the HIV-1-seronegative partner was male (median follow-up 18·7 [IQR 12·8–24·2] months), rates of HIV-1 transmission from women to men were 2·61 per 100 person-years in couples in which women used hormonal contraception and 1·51 per 100 person-years in couples in which women did not use hormonal contraception (adjusted hazard ratio 1·97, 95% CI 1·12–3·45, p=0·02). Marginal structural model analyses generated much the same results to the Cox proportional hazards regression. Women should be counselled about potentially increased risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission with hormonal contraception, especially injectable methods, andabout the importance of dual protection with condoms to decrease HIV-1 risk. Non-hormonal or low-dose hormonal contraceptive methods should be considered for women with or at-risk for HIV-1.